In recent News from Physics and Cosmology, there has been a flurry of reports concerning a signature spectral line which can be associated with dark matter in distant galaxies. Given the preponderance of hydrogen in normal matter, there has been a suspicion that dark matter is novel form of hydrogen. "An unidentified line in X-ray spectra of the Andromeda galaxy and Perseus galaxy cluster" by Boyarsky is an example. Although the line is weak, it has a tendency to become stronger towards the centers of the galaxies and is absent in the spectrum of a deep "blank sky" dataset.
Detection of an Unidentified Emission Line in the Stacked X-Ray Spectrum of Galaxy Clusters by Bulbul et al. reports the unidentified emission line at 3.6 keV in 73 different Galaxies.
The authors conclude that "As intriguing as the dark matter interpretation of our new line is, we should emphasize the significant systematic uncertainties in detecting the line energy in addition to the quoted statistical errors." Statisticians seem to be more comfortable with the evidence than physicists. We at Chava are interested in the dark matter to hydrogen from the perspective of alternative energy. There is a possibility that dark matter hydrogen can be ubiquitous, and even manufactured or "harvested". The solar wind could be resource for dark matter.
In another paper: "Questioning a 3.5 keV dark matter emission line" Riemer-Sørensen analyzes data from the Milky Way and finds some evidence of this line but does not ascribe the same high confidence level as do other for a dark matter signature.
The issue is far from decided, but it is not too soon to consider alternative energy implications for Earth-bound uses and experiments with engineered Dark Matter, which are based on the possibility that hydrogen isomers are formed in a predicted state, known as the DDL, or Deep Dirac Level, which can be identified as warm dark matter with the characteristic emission.
The actual mystery emission line is centered at ~3.5-3.6 keV in all 73 Galaxies which were analyzed. Previously there had been predictions of neutrinos at 3.5 and 7 keV based on roughly the same equations which derive from the Dirac equation. This spectrum is otherwise unpopulated by known elemental emission lines.
X-rays in this spectrum are fairly "soft" - and at a blind spot exists in experiments where they could appear, since there are no commercially available meters to see 10 keV all the way down to EUV. Thus, detection in metal hydride experiments has not been possible to date without the use of film exposure; and even NASA can only accomplish this feat in space and at huge expense. Almost any window for a detector will block this x-ray but if more evidence accumulates, solutions to the detector problem will be found. Very thin Mylar may work, or exposed circuit lines and semiconductor.
The enticing thing about this x-ray line – for those who pursuing the phenomenon of anomalous heat from metal-hydrides – the field which was once called "cold fusion" and later LENR is that it offers an alternative explanation for thermal gain. No matter what name has been given to the phenomenon in the past, it cannot involve common types of nuclear fusion, since no gamma radiation is present. But the predicted deeply bound state of hydrogen, derived from the Dirac equation, fits the evidence nicely. This is an emission range which could have gone undetected in the past 25 years of LENR research, and yet it would produce a few thousand times more energy than a chemical reaction.
Notably, this line seems to be near a Rydberg multiple of the kind featured in the CQM theory of Randell Mills, and possibly already associated with deep level ground state orbital redundancy of hydrogen, in the work of several others including Naudts, Va'vra and Meulenberg. There can be 137 steps in the progression of ground state hydrogen orbital to a DDL which are multiples of 27.2 eV, the Hartree energy. For instance 130 * 27.2eV = 3.54 keV which would indicate that the deeper states below 130 steps are not accessible. Randell Mills own calculation provides a value which is too low for what has been reported. There are other ways to compute this value, as well, which fall within a range of 3-7 keV. If the hydrogen as a DDL isomer can be identified as dark matter, or a subset of dark matter, it is not completely dark in a cosmological environment, and will emit its signature on either decay or other stimulation, such as the passage of a gravity wave.
The payoff of dark matter research - and its availability as an alternative energy source would be huge - should this emission line be seen in experiments. We could simultaneously go a long way towards explaining what dark matter really consists of (basically it is hydrogen but as a DDL isomer) and also, explain the proximate cause of some forms of LENR, which are producing heat without gamma radiation. This understanding could also permit better control over a notoriously unpredictable system.
Randell Mills Theory
Jan Naudts "On the hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom", Aug, 2005, predicts the DDL state at very close to the observed spectral line which does not really support Mills theory.
Naudts summarizes: "This paper starts with the Klein-Gordon equation, with minimal coupling to the non-quantized electromagnetic field. In case of a Coulomb potential this equation is the obvious relativistic generalization of the Schrödinger equation of the non relativistic hydrogen atom, if spin of the electron is neglected. It has two sets of eigenfunctions, one of which introduces small relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic solutions. The other set of solutions contains one eigenstate which describes a highly relativistic particle with a binding energy which is a large fraction of the rest mass energy. This is the hydrino [single DDL] state.
For a contrary view, see Rice and Kim
and the rebuttal of Rice and Kim by Va'vra
The DDL/Dark-Matter/LENR connection is an interesting possibility that has generated a huge amount of interest, since it fills a large gap elegantly... which of course, does not make it right.
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